Google doesn’t provide much information on link building, but you should read up on all of the documented policies, articles, and videos from google and its representatives.
Google’s link spam policies have their official stance on types of link building that they state can either generate a penalty, manual action, or simply be ignored, thus removing any ranking impact. Of course, this is only if the algorithm see the link or linking site as having a footprint that is similar to known spam sites.
If you’ve heard of E-E-A-T (formerly E-A-T), then the Google Quality Rater Guidelines is where SEOs can find most of the information available about it.
But it has a lot of other great insights into how Google wants its search engine to work, but doesn’t reflect how it actually functions. Allegedly, the rater’s review highly correlates with google’s algorithm results.
If you don’t want to read this massive document, then you can also get Google’s overview here.
Google representatives periodically share their thoughts on link building and related topics.
In early 2023, @johnmu blasted agencies selling links and disavowing them as well. This is a standard response from Google. Read the tweets on the Search engine Round Table.